George Pal, another workaholic madman, used a process in his cartoons called replacement animation, where he and his team would create different individually carved wooden puppets for each frame of animation to allow for greater flexibility of movement. A typical seven-minute Puppetoon required 9,000 carved puppets. The haunted house Puppetoon Jasper in a Jam (1946) contains dated stereotypes, but also features fantastic visual imagination and a swinging jazz soundtrack by Charlie Barnet and his Orchestra.
Alexandre Alexeieff and Claire Parker’s Night on Bald Mountain (1933), a forerunner of the Bald Mountain sequence in Fantasia, was created using an invention called the pinscreen. Alexeieff and Parker’s device allowed movement through the manipulation of thousands of small pins that could be pushed in and out of a grid to create forms (like the later Pin Art toys). The amount of detail they were able to achieve is stunning, and while this isn’t technically stop motion, it’s too good not to include here.

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